Monday, July 29, 2013

1307.6950 (Adam Miranowicz et al.)

Phase-space interference of states optically truncated by quantum
scissors: Generation of distinct superpositions of qudit coherent states by
displacement of vacuum

Adam Miranowicz, Malgorzata Paprzycka, Anirban Pathak, Franco Nori
Conventional Glauber coherent states (CS) can be defined in several equivalent ways, e.g., by displacing the vacuum or, explicitly, by their infinite Poissonian expansion in Fock states. It is well known that these definitions become inequivalent if applied to finite $d$-level systems (qudits). We present a comparative Wigner-function description of the qudit CS defined (i) by the action of the truncated displacement operator on the vacuum and (ii) by the Poissonian expansion in Fock states of the Glauber CS truncated at $(d-1)$-photon Fock state. These states can be generated from a classical light by its optical truncation using nonlinear and linear quantum scissors devices, respectively. We show a surprising effect that a macroscopically-distinguishable superposition of two qudit CS (according to both definitions) can be generated with high fidelity by displacing the vacuum in the qudit Hilbert space. If the qudit dimension $d$ is even (odd) then the superposition state contains Fock states with only odd (even) photon numbers, which can be referred to as the odd (even) qudit CS or the female (male) Schr\"odinger cat state. This phenomenon can be interpreted as an interference of a single CS with its reflection from the highest-energy Fock state of the Hilbert space, as clearly seen via phase-space interference of the Wigner function. We also analyze nonclassical properties of the qudit CS including their photon-number statistics and nonclassical volume of the Wigner function, which is a quantitative parameter of nonclassicality (quantumness) of states. Finally, we study optical tomograms, which can be directly measured in the homodyne detection of the analyzed qudit cat states and enable the complete reconstructions of their Wigner functions.
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