Wednesday, June 19, 2013

1306.4002 (D. Ristè et al.)

Deterministic entanglement of superconducting qubits by parity
measurement and feedback

D. Ristè, M. Dukalski, C. A. Watson, G. de Lange, M. J. Tiggelman, Ya. M. Blanter, K. W. Lehnert, R. N. Schouten, L. DiCarlo
The stochastic evolution of quantum systems during measurement is arguably the most enigmatic feature of quantum mechanics. Measuring a quantum system typically steers it towards a classical state, destroying any initial quantum superposition and any entanglement with other quantum systems. Remarkably, the measurement of a shared property between non-interacting quantum systems can generate entanglement starting from an uncorrelated state. Of special interest in quantum computing is the parity measurement, which projects a register of quantum bits (qubits) to a state with an even or odd total number of excitations. Crucially, a parity meter must discern the two parities with high fidelity while preserving coherence between same-parity states. Despite numerous proposals for atomic, semiconducting, and superconducting qubits, realizing a parity meter creating entanglement for both even and odd measurement results has remained an outstanding challenge. We realize a time-resolved, continuous parity measurement of two superconducting qubits using the cavity in a 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture and phase-sensitive parametric amplification. Using postselection, we produce entanglement by parity measurement reaching 77% concurrence. Incorporating the parity meter in a feedback-control loop, we transform the entanglement generation from probabilistic to fully deterministic, achieving 66% fidelity to a target Bell state on demand. These realizations of a parity meter and a feedback-enabled deterministic measurement protocol provide key ingredients for active quantum error correction in the solid state.
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